Developing foundational competency including reading, writing, math, job application assistance, and overall life-skill development. Also includes STEM (Science Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) knowledge building on basic skills and concepts.
In preschool, children listening to stories is positively associated with activation of brain areas supporting mental imagery and narrative comprehension, regardless of household income.
Higher levels of inequality in literacy and numeracy skills are associated with greater inequality in the distribution of income.
Each year, low literacy costs the U.S. $225 billion or more in non-productivity in the workforce, with crime, and loss of tax revenue due to unemployment.
In all countries, individuals who score at lower levels of proficiency in literacy are more likely than those with higher proficiency to report poor health, believe that they have little to no impact on the political process, and not participate in associative or volunteer activities.